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Deep into Australia
Australia is a giant island somewhere on the edge of the Earth. For centuries it was the most isolated part of the world. The continent lived its own life, but several centuries ago with the coming of the Europeans its destiny changed forever. Nowadays it’s one of the most developed countries on the planet with two great metropolises – Sydney and Melbourne.
Before the Europeans came to Australia the local population counted about 300 000 – 1 000 000. There were about 500 cultural groups speaking 250 different languages. The first Europeans who visited Australia were the Dutch. They landed Australian Eastern Coast and discovered Tasmania Island.
In 1770 James Cook marked the Eastern coast on the map and called it New South Wales. He proclaimed this territory a property of the Great Britain. The first English settled here in 1788, but these were not respectable citizens called to raise a new country. In contrary, new land became a place where a colony for British criminals was organized.
Thus one of the main Australian cities – Sydney was born. It happened on 26th January 1788 and this date is now celebrated as “Australian Day”. During the following century the other settlers founded Hobart, Brisbane, Perth and Melbourne. During this period Britain send about 160 thousands prisoners to Australia.
In XIX century in Australia gold was found and it also attracted a lot of newcomers. For example, about 40 000 Chinese moved to Australia seeking for gold between 1851 and 1889.
By the beginning of XX century Australia consisted of six areas – New South Walws, Victoria, Tasmania, Queensland, Southern Australia and Western Australia. All these colonies were united in 1901.
Another stream of immigrants poured to Australia after World War II, because Australia was as far from this war as possible. However the coming of more than 5 millions immigrants from about 200 countries changed life and look of Australia completely. It has made Australia the most multinational country on the planet.
The choice of tours to Australia is very diverse – from lying on the beach and diving to observing of the cultural attractions and Melbourne and traveling deep into Australian deserts, to the lands still inhabited by the aborigines. If you prefer tropical landscapes, then go to Darwin jungles and Cockatoo Park.
One more place, you shouldn’t miss when traveling to Australia is its capital – Canberra. Why this not very big city was chosen a capital. The matter is, that there was almost impossible to choose between Sydney and Melbourne – the favour to one of them could have caused resentment among the inhabitants of the looser. As a compromise Australian government decided to create a new city – and thus in 1913 Canberra appeared.
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