The Basics Of Solenoids And Electric Motors
Basically an electric motor is a mechanical device that switches electric energy into mechanical energy by passing an electric current through a wire loop contained within a magnetic field. A solenoid, universally used in all types of motors from starters to power door locks and is simply a round coil of insulated wire used to create a magnetic field in the atmosphere of this current.
Solenoids are a specially engineered electromagnet in which a coil of wire is wrapped around a specifically shaped core made of iron or steel, it is an integral component in motors of all sizes.
Here's are the basics of how a solenoid operates: when electrical current goes through the loop of wire, a magnetic field builds up around it. A iron or steel path for this force to flow into significantly increases the intensity of the magnetic field. Because magnetic energy attempts to take a specific path, flowing from the center of a coil, out one end, down the sides and then reversing that path. If a steel or iron core, called a solenoid, is shaped to fit this path, it will then direct the flow of magnetism through it.
If gaps are left in the core design, the magnetic flux will flow around the path until it is stopped by the resulting breach. The solenoid armature will fill the gap; thus, when the current flows through the coil, it will attract this moveable plunger into the gap, thus completing the electrical circuit. This plunger can subsequently be attached to various mechanical parts, which, in turn, will cause them to move in a defined direction. Depending on which end of the armature is connected to the solenoid, a pushing or pulling motion results. Very often, springs are employed to keep the plunger position set to open.
Electric motors are based on the basic principle that all current-carrying wire within a magnetic field contains a degree of mechanical force. The bigger the motor and the larger the electromagnetic field, the more power is exerted. A row of solenoid switches and check valves can harness this power in a specific manner, depending on the direction and force required. The muscle behind any motor is governed by different factors including the number of turns in the coil, how much current is flowing through it, the distance end to end of the coil and the magnetic superiority of the steel or iron used in the moveable parts.
To conclude, by applying the basics of electromagnetic knowledge and by adapting the parts to withstand the relevant pressure, all motors, regardless of their size operate on this same scientific principle.
About the Author: The above article with information relating too electric motor speed control and electric motor testers has been submitted by Chad McDonald from: http://www.electricmotorspeedcontrol.info