Vectors and 3D Models
Local Search - Science
Weather Information
Get the App for Smartphones and Tablets

Go Back


WhmSoft Free Articles Directory
Free Articles for Reprint
Free Articles to Publish
Free Articles for Newsletters
Videos to Watch


Page Generation Date and Time:
08/22/2017 07:18:25

 
Free the Animation VR / AR
Play to reveal 3D images and 3D models!
   
 
vlrPhone / vlrFilter
Project of very low consumption, radiation and bitrate softphones, with the support of the spatial audio, of the frequency shifts and of the ultrasonic communications / Multifunction Audio Filter with Remote Control!



 
 
Alexa Data
 

Go To Articles Directory Home Page

To get the current article, - See Below (at the bottom of the page) -.
For top news titles, see below.
Web sites and videos listed in this page are frequently updated.
If you find that this page is useful (quality of web sites, images and videos, ...), you can add it to your favorites.
Bookmark Page !

Tell a Friend:



With your mobile phone (WAP / I-Mode / iPhone / PDA), for free:
The Top News - http://www.whmsoft.net/services/wap/news.php
The Daily Files - http://www.whmsoft.net/services/wap/get.php
All the Directory Files - http://www.whmsoft.net/services/wap/choose.php

Web version of feeds:
Podcast Music - http://www.whmsoft.net/services/web/wpodcast.php
Daily Files - http://www.whmsoft.net/services/web/wget.php

You can play the Guitar Drum Revolution game (flash game) by following the link below:
Play Guitar Drum Revolution Game


You can play free online games (flash games) by following the link below:
Free Online Games

Play the samples below:
Fun BurgerFrogitaireJurassic PinballBoom Boom VolleyballSnowy Treasure Hunter 2

You can view the people (celebrities) news and the front page news (with videos, images and constant updates) by following the link below:
View Recent News
or by visiting the WhmSoft Service blog:
News Photos Slideshows


Article Keyword Videos to Watch
Science
Click on the image to start the video.



Related Topics
Images - Links - Articles

science daily
science
science news
science buddies
science friday
science fair projects
science center
science museum
science experiments
science fiction
Chicago science daily
Chicago


Related Images



Article Category Videos to Watch
Science
Go to the Videos Pages


Eugene Guth on Historians and the Scientific Approach

Historical evolution entered also philosophy and social sciences, like economy and political science, and law. The chief purpose of these efforts was, however, not the study of history for its own sake but for the utilitarian purpose of “learning from the past.” Moreover, such historical studies of, for example, law or economy have often been written by lawyers and economists and not by historians. The dissatisfaction of historians with such accounts is perhaps partially responsible for the negative attitude of most, or at least many, historians toward the achievement of scientific thinking and heir failure to explore the possibilities which a scientific approach has to offer. This “tension” between historians and social scientists is an interesting topic in itself, but would lead us far away from our main topic.

Incidentally, a historical approach developed gradually, encompassing all arts and letters, literature and languages, art and music; all have been studied in a historical manner. Again, however, this started as a work of specialists interested in the history of their topics. Pioneers like Winckeman, Dr. Burney, Tiraboshi, and Victor Cousin intended with their books to deepen and broaden the appreciation and understanding of the student of art, of music, or literature, and of philosophy. The emphasis on the historical environment was taken up only later by more or less professional historians.

I return now to the contrast between the Hero-Worship attitude of Carlyle and the modern general history of Ferrero, two authors who influenced me greatly in high school, as I mentioned before. Ferrero’s “The Greatness and Decline of Rome” is perhaps not as well-known in the United States as it should be. Ferrero was also an early believer in, and wrote a little book about, the “Unity of the World.” (Willkie’s book, “One World or None” came ten years later.)

Since a lot of you, I am sure, have not heard about Ferrero before, let me tell you what the distinguished American historian, Charles A. Beard, says about him in a Foreward to that little book: “It is a small book about a great subject by a distinguished thinker. Such combinations are not common, and it is written with an artistic flair which delights the reader by whirling him in time and space, challenging him and informing him.”

In the Preface of the American edition of his history of Rome, he displays an attitude which can be applied to the history of contemporary United States. “I have studied the history of Rome from the point of view of the transformation of man, of the increase of luxury, and of the standard of living from generation to generation.” This attitude is less dated than that of Mommsen, for example, whose books “were written from the special point of view that interested the majority at that time, the conflict between the public and the monarchy.”

Ferrero also wrote a very interesting volume called the “Women of the Ceasars.” This is a topic which is sometimes not considered adequately. People talk about “the man behind the throne,” and we should consider the “women behind the men.” The women behind the men play a much more important role, for instance, for politicians, than a lot of people think. This was true about the Caesars and it also is true about scientists. I could mention several cases. Quite a few scientists who were great became even greater, because they had the proper wives, and scientists who could have been equally great were retarded by not quite so good a choice.

(Here is something which is not directly related to our topic. Some of you may not know the “Women of the Caesars.” At that time, the women already had greater freedom when Rome became the master state of the Mediterranean Area. There were different types of legal marriages – one was “manus,” which ws the older form where all the goods of the wife passed to the ownership of the husband, so that she could no longer possess anything in her own name. And there was the marriage without “manus,” in which only the dowry became the property of the husband, and the wife remained mistress of all her other belongings and all that she might acquire. This is not the modern way where she keeps hers and she gets his.)

Among modern historians, let me discuss very briefly Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., whose books some of you may have read. Schlesinger is a follower of Carlyle, a romantic historian. He considers history made by “men in buff coats and breeches, with color in their cheeks, with passions in their stomachs, and the idioms, features and vitalities of very men.” This type of history is in contrast to the unromantic, “scientific” approach of Ranke, which emphasized thoroughness and impartiality at the expense of readability. Sometimes the text was almost drowned in footnotes!

Schlesinger is an adherent of the “confusion theory” of history. He believes in the “role of chance, the contingency, the sheer intricacy of situations, the mark of battle.” This is in contrast to the “conspiracy theory,” according to which “if something happened, somebody planned it.” Schlesinger also disagrees with the “prophetic historians,” like Marx, Spengler, and Toynbee, who use “one big hypothesis to explain a variety of small things.” All these diverse attitudes in history in general show up also in the history of science.

http://michaelguth.com/family/HistoryofPhysicsbyEugeneGuth.htm


About the Author: Eugene Guth, http://michaelguth.com/family/eugeneguth.htm , made pioneering contributions to Polymer Physics and significant contributions to Nuclear and Solid State Physics. At the age of 23, he wrote the first comprehensive history of quantum theory in a 170-page Handbuch der Physik (Vol. IV) article, which was highly praised by Niels Bohr and Wolfgang Pauli. Dr. Guth is one of the chief founders and developers of Polymer Physics and Polymer Physical Chemistry, both theoretically and experimentally. For this work and for basic contributions to rheology, he received the 1965 Bingham Medal, the Society of Rheology's highest award.




Recommended Web Site(s):

Easy Articles Home Page - Articles Directory

Recommended WhmSoft Web Sites, Feeds and WAP Address:

WhmSoft Software Home Page - Software
WhmSoft Services Login Page - Music and Images
WhmSoft Moblog Home Page - Blog - Photo Gallery
WhmSoft Free Online Games Home Page - Flash Games
WhmSoft Services RSS Feed - Daily Music, Image and 3D Flash Animation
Classical Music with Drum RSS Feed - MIDI and MP3 Files
Classical Music with Drum Podcast Feed - MP3 and MP3 Files
WAP / I-Mode / PDAs - Daily Music, Image and Flash Animation

Home Pages:

WhmSoft Free Articles for Reprint Home Page
WhmSoft Services Home Page - Music and Images
Copyright (C) 2006-2017 WhmSoft - All Rights Reserved.