Facts and treatments regarding Lupus
Lupus is a chronic inflammtory disease which affects both women and men,(especially women) and usually occurs on different parts of the body, such as skin, blood, joints. As we know, the body systems produces antibodies which have the role to fight against bacteria and viruses. In addition, lupus appears when the body system stops to work properly and produces antibodies known as auto-antibodies causing inflammation and pain. Much more there are two forms of lupus: one of them is called erythematosus (SLE) and usually affects the skin, muscles, joints, lungs and even heart, causing in most cases muscle and joint pain. Another common form of lupus is known as discoid lupus, which appears on the skin, producing rash on the head, scalp and neck.
First of all, lupus symptoms don't occur to all people in the same measure. For instance some people can face an easy form of lupus and on the other hand other people may show severe symptoms that can easily lead to complications. Some of the most common lupus symptoms are: muscle and/or joint pains, swelling and redness of other parts of the body, severe headaches, fatigue, sensitivity to light, fever, weight and hair loss, swelling of the feet or legs and others.
Lupus is an affection that has been known for more than 100 years and it shows its presence through different forms still. It is important to know that people can find out if they suffer from lupus only by visiting a doctor. So, after a special examination of the symptoms and various tests, the physician can easily settle a proper diagnosis. Even though, lupus can cause severe complications and needs specific treatments and even hospitalization, it is not considered a fatal disease and patients can have a normal life if they follow the medical instructions.
Furthermore, lupus like any other disease needs a special treatment and it depends on how severe or not is the affection. By asking medical help, people who are diagnosed with lupus should fallow a treatment which usually includes non-steroidal anti-imflammatory, drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesics. Moreover, these drugs have the role in diminishing discomfort and symptoms that lupus produces by reducing pain and sweeling in the affected areas. However, NSAIDs have a negative part too, taking more medicines than is necessary may lead to other complications such as ulcers or bleeding. During the years has been discovered different methods to heal lupus, methods which are sub-classes of NSAIDs. Some of theses are frequently prescriebed and are known as Cox-2 inhibitors, celecoxib, rofecoxib, valdecoxib and meloxicam. Moreover other prescribed medicines for treating lupus are Acetaminophen which are pain killers; Corticosteroids, used in diminishing swelling and inflammation, balancing the immune system too; Anti-Malarials medications usually help in removing, skin rashed, the fatigue and joint pain and not in the last place a medicine which has the role in improving the quality of life and it is known as Nutricol.
In spite of the long term experience gained in more than 100 years of practice, diagnosing acute appendicitis is still a tricky and doubtful charge. This is why surgeons often choose to risk removing a healthy appendix instead of gambling other complications like perforation or gangrene of the organ. The pain in appendicitis is most assembling to aches caused by other major abdominal pathology; cases of negative appendicectomy are found in about 20% of the situations.
Although sometimes negative appendicectomy might seem common and without risks, there are studies confirming high rates of complications and mortality in such mistakes; much higher than in well diagnosed appendicectomy.
The use of scoring system Alvarado has proved to decrease at about 0-5% the risk of negative appendicectomy. A closer and more objective or specialized expertise of the case can highly lower the further explorations until making them unnecessary. Replacing clinical skills of the surgeon by newest domain technology can have, in spite of the expectations, high risks.
In a study comparing patients suspected of acute appendicitis diagnosed by clinical exams and patients investigated through ultrasound technology, scientists have proven no major differences between the two methods. Patients undergoing ultrasound examination got earlier to the operation room as the others but the rate of negative appendicectomy remained high. No major changes were discovered although the operation was restricted to the patients with an Alvarado score of 4-8.
Other clinical studies proved no important differences. Concluding, we can assert that the Para clinical such as ultrasonography is highly dependent on the physician executing it.
The most helpful radiological investigation in avoiding negative appendicectomy seems to be computerized tomography. It reveals differential diagnosis and other possible abdominal pathology and offers more clear images of the explored area. More recent studies have verified the hypothesis that CT-scan reduces the risk of a false appendicitis diagnosis.
Despite of the major benefits of the computerized tomography this type of new technology isn’t always available to the clinician in emergency cases when suspecting appendicitis.
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