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Infectious and non-infectious causes of sinus infections - Part two
The gastro esophageal reflux disease with acid turns in the esophagus is being associated with many cases of respiratory diseases in children but also in some cases of chronic sinusitis in adults. In a clinical study more than 4% of the children suffering from GERD had sinus damages, and about 63% of children with sinusitis had GERD. Some specialists see the gastro esophageal reflux as normal in children and deny its significance for upper respiratory diseases.
Most common infectious cause for sinusitis is the next bacteria:
1. Streptococcus pneumonia in about 20-43% of the cases of sinusitis, adults and children
2. Haemophylus Influenza strongly associated with many respiratory conditions. Almost ˝ of children under two years are colonized by it and approximately 25% develop sinusitis. Also 22-35% of adults with sinusitis have positive results to H. Influenza tests.
3. Moraxella catharallis causes about 25% of the sinus infection cases.
4. Staphylococcus aureus
5. Other stems of streptococcus
Allergic fungal sinusitis covers about 5-10% of the sinusitis cases and researchers make constant studies to find the right methods of diagnose and therapy. As it plays an important role in the appearance of chronic sinusitis, fungal sinusitis is more seen as an immune affection.
Sinusitis causing fungus is Aspergillus, the most common, Curvularia, Bipolaris, Mucormycosis, Exseohilum, Metarrhlizzium anisopliae.
Four forms of allergic fungal sinusitis are known:
1. The acute sinusitis, an invasive condition affecting especially patients with diabetes and persons with weaken immune system
2. Chronic sinus infection mostly found in northern India
3. Mycetoma, known as the “fungus ball” generally appears in only one sinus cavity especially the maxillary sinus. It is non-invasive and easy to treat
4. An allergic sinusitis due to an inflammatory response to Aspergillus, causing nasal obstruction and bone erosion.
Fungal sinusitis usually appears in persons with a weak immune system, such as patients suffering from AIDS, leukemia or diabetes.
Viral sinusitis only fills 10% of sinus infection cases.
Some cases of acute and chronic sinusitis seem to have same or assembling infectious agents; but in some cases of chronicle sinusitis the trigger is totally different from the initial agent causing the acute infection. 20% of chronicle stages of sinusitis have as a pathological agent Staphylococcus aureus; it can appear also in the acute stage but is rarely the cause of infection.
Some anaerobic bacteria like Peptostreptococcus and Fusobacterium prevotella are common in around 88% of chronic sinusitis.
Fungal chronic sinusitis occupy about 6-8% of the chronic sinus inflammations and infections.
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