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Myths about women and International business

Researcher, Nancy Adler conducted a monumental study in the mid 1980’s to address myths about women and international business. Her study investigated if commonly held myths about women in international business were true including: women are not interested in International business, women were not willing to travel overseas for a variety of reasons namely family responsibilities and women would not be viewed as credible in overseas business due to the local perception of women. Her study results revealed that many of these false perceptions were indeed myths often held by male managers and HR personnel, and that women were interested and willing to conduct business overseas.

Today many of these same myths still exist despite the dramatic increase of women in business and women owned businesses and women traveling overseas.

Here are some facts published by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) (, The National Association of Women Business Owners (NAWBO) (, and the Small Business Administration (SBA) (, on women in the work force:
• Women account for over 46% of the work force in America and this is expected to increase to 48% by the year 2005.

• Women comprised 43% of employees in American executive, administrative, and managerial occupations in 1995 and this number is growing.

• Businesses owned by women number 8 million in the U.S., and they employ one out of every four workers. They are growing at double the rate of all businesses.

• 33% of women business owners report that they exported in their first or second year of operation and the majority reported that they were successful on their first transaction.

• In 1998 over 23 million Americans traveled overseas and the primary areas of travel were Europe, Asia, Japan and Latin America.

It is no longer just a rumor that women have become major players in the U.S. workforce and in the global business environment. More and more women are traveling overseas to conduct business for their corporations or for their own business ventures.

Despite these significant advances of women in International business we still find commercial guidebooks that suggest that women should not be in International business. Most books in this genre were written by men and either do not address women’s particular issues in international business or, worse, they suggest that women should not even be sent on foreign business assignments due to role differences which these men perceive to be unconquerable obstacles. In contrast, my own research (1992, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1998) indicates that women can and are successful in international business, despite the variety of viewpoints they encounter around the world. Specifically, my research has demonstrated that establishing credibility during the initial stages of business is one area that businesswomen find critical to their success.

Establishing Your Credibility
For men, credibility is often derived from their gender and their status in the company. For women, credibility is more often derived from their individual skills. Women report that they often have to work extra hard to establish credibility because of their gender.
Some women explain:
When I conduct business in most countries I am consciously aware that my male colleagues have more credibility than I do, just because of gender differences. In most countries women are not expected to have significant positions of authority, so I am frequently viewed in the same way. I am first assumed to be an administrator, not the decision-maker in the group, whereas my male colleague is first viewed as the manager or decision-maker. I feel I have to work doubly hard to establish my credibility before I can effectively conduct business and I’m aware that I need to do this immediately so that the business can start. (Chicago)

When I travel outside the U.S. for the corporate office, I am viewed as foreign first, and female second. However, I feel I am still met with some degree of skepticism as to what my role is and how much authority I have for the corporate office. Due to this, I take extra steps to make sure that the proper introductions are made in advance to limit concerns that men might have about my credibility. (Los Angeles)

As a woman business owner I realize that I am not the norm in many countries. Therefore I have to develop methods by which to establish my self and my company as credible for my foreign business associates. This requires preparation and advance communication about my firm, our success and our viability -- perhaps more than is required for men who run their own firms. (New York)

Here are some pointers for establishing credibility:

• Be visible. Attend and host meetings between your company and your international counterparts whenever possible. International travel is often associated with decision-makers in a firm, so being present adds to your credibility.
• Introductions are important, particularly for women. If you are doing business with a firm for the first time, have yourself introduced by a higher-ranking person in your company who already knows the people with whom you will be dealing.
• If you cannot have someone introduce you, ask a higher-ranking person in your company to send a fax or written correspondence in advance, outlining your title, responsibilities and background.
• Make sure your business card indicates a distinctive title such as “Manager” or “Director” so that your position can be clearly understood. If there is any doubt about your title, it may be automatically assumed that you have a lesser role than other members on your team.
• Some women wear a school ring or a graduate school pendant to subtly advertise their background. Others wear corporate pins designating tenure, thus demonstrating their level of experience.
• In general, foreigners will often look and respond more to the men on your team than the women. This is because there are fewer women in executive positions outside of the U.S. Prepare for this by advising your colleagues of tactics that will help you and the other female members, including making seating arrangements that will place you in a position of authority.
• If someone appears confused about your name and rank, offer him another business card, even if you have already given him one. This is a subtle way of reinforcing your title and ensuring acknowledgment of your participation as an active member at the meeting
• Women should lead business discussions where possible. If there is only one woman and everyone is of equal rank, let the woman take the lead to help establish her credibility.
• A female team leader may experience a problem establishing her credibility unless team members defer to her as the authority figure on the team. American men need to be aware that their tendency to jump in and answer questions, especially when a woman is speaking, undermines her authority and the team’s effectiveness. Women should advise team members not to answer questions directed to her and to otherwise defer to her whenever appropriate. A good response when asked a question that should be directed to a female colleague is: “Jane is the best person to answer that question.”
• Be professional. Present yourself in a sincere, confident, professional manner, both in appearance and speech, to create a good first impression. Be yourself. Do not come on too strong, but don’t defer when it is appropriate for you to respond. Deferring to age and position is, however, always acceptable for both sexes.
• Be aware of women’s roles in other countries. If you understand where women are in their own corporate environment it will give you insight into how the culture may perceive you.

The Role of the Manager

Managers can be very effective in international business by helping to enhance their team’s credibility. The manager can introduce the staff members by title and outline their areas of expertise, act as moderator to refer questions to the appropriate team member, and highlight the staff’s achievements.
In particular, managers can help in the following ways:

• It is important that all team members, including management, understand their roles at the meeting and, more importantly, that they do not act out of role. If one of your colleagues is acting out of role, call for a break to explain how the group loses effectiveness when it is not cohesive.
• As a woman, you should advise management that your personal credibility may be jeopardized if your role is undermined, and that this could hinder the success of the team at any follow-up meetings.
• Managers can help enhance the credibility of female teammates by reinforcing their authority during the meeting. For example, if a woman is not receiving the appropriate respect, the manager may once again bring attention to her role and authority.

Despite commonly held myths about women in International businesswomen are traveling and conducting business internationally in increased numbers and they are successful in their business dealings. Establishing credibility in advance is one of the key areas where women can do to ensure her business success.

About the Author: Tracey Wilen is Author at

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